Institute of Medical Biochemistry
  Medical Chemistry & Dental Materials: Exam Questions  
 
Dentistry, 1st year winter term, 2011/2012
 
    General and Physical Chemistry

  1. Structure of atom - basic principles. Orbitals. Chemical bond. Energy of chemical bond.
  2. Covalent bond. Electronegativity. Polarity of covalent bond. Ionic bond. Crystal lattice.
  3. Solutions - general properties. True solutions and colloids.
  4. Expressions of solution composition and concentration.
  5. Theories of acids and bases. Protolytic reactions.
  6. Electrolytes, electrolytic dissociation. Dissociation of acids and bases.
  7. Autoprotolysis of water. Ionic product of water. pH - expressions of acidity or alkalinity of solutions.
  8. Hydrolysis of salts. pH of salt solutions.
  9. Reactions of acids and bases. Neutralisation, titration curves.
  10. Chemical reactions. Collision theory, activated complex theory.
  11. Thermochemistry. The laws of thermochemistry. Exothermic and endothermic reactions.
  12. Kinetics of chemical reactions. Effects of reaction conditions on reaction rate.
  13. Catalysers.
  14. Chemical equilibrium. The equilibrium constant.
  15. Equilibrium in protolytic reactions. Dissociation constant.
  16. Oxidation and reduction. Redox potential, electrochemical series of metals.
  17. Energetics of chemical reactions. Entropy, enthalpy and free energy.
  18. Diffusion, dialysis and ultrafiltration. Osmotic phenomena - importance in chemistry and biology.
  19. Buffers - theory and importance in chemistry and biology.
  20. Calculation of pH of buffers. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.
  21. Solubility of substances. Solubility product.
  22. Co-ordination compounds - examples and significance.
  23. Hydrofilic and hydrofobic substances. Mixotropic series of solvents.
  24. Ampholytes and polyelectrolytes. Isoelectric point.
  25. Natural and synthetic polymers.
    Inorganic Chemistry

  1. Macro- and microbiogenic elements.
  2. Hydrogen and its compounds - biomedical significance.
  3. Oxygen and its compounds - biomedical significance.
  4. Water as solvent and medium. Properties of water.
  5. Group Ia elements: properties, compounds and biomedical significance.
  6. Group IIa elements: properties, compounds and biomedical significance.
  7. Group IIIa elements: properties, compounds and biomedical significance.
  8. Group IVa elements: properties, compounds and biomedical significance.
  9. Group Va elements: properties, compounds and biomedical significance.
  10. Group VIa elements: properties, compounds and biomedical significance.
  11. Fluorine, chlorine: properties, compounds and biomedical significance.
  12. Bromine, iodine: properties, compounds and biomedical significance.
  13. Group VIIIa elements: properties, compounds and biomedical significance.
  14. Transition metals: properties, compounds and biomedical significance. Co-ordination compounds.
  15. Oxides of carbon, carbonic acid, its salts and derivatives.
  16. Nitrogen, its oxides and inorganic acids, their salts.
  17. Sulphur, its oxides and inorganic acids, their salts.
  18. Phosphorus, phosphoric acid and phosphates.
  19. Inorganic acids containing halogens and their derivatives.
  20. Oxygen-free inorganic acids.
  21. Iron, zinc, and copper: properties, compounds and biomedical significance.
  22. Cobalt, nickel, cadmium, and mercury: properties, compounds and biomedical significance.
  23. Gold, silver, and platinum metals: properties and biomedical significance.
  24. Elements and compounds in the atmosphere.
  25. Inorganic compounds as environmental pollutants. The global warming effect.
    Organic Chemistry and Essentials of Biochemistry

  1. Chemical bonds in molecules of organic compounds. Bond sigma and pi - examples.
  2. Formulas of organic compounds.
  3. Hydrocarbons aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic.
  4. Isomery and tautomery of organic compounds.
  5. Alcohols, phenols and thioalcohols.
  6. Aldehydes and ketones.
  7. Ethers.
  8. Halogeno- and nitroderivatives of hydrocarbons.
  9. Carboxylic acids.
  10. Derivatives of carboxylic acids. Anhydrides of organic and inorganic acids.
  11. Esters of organic and inorganic acids.
  12. Amines.
  13. Basic types of organic reactions.
  14. Amino acids - properties, biomedical significance, classification according to their side chains.
  15. Peptidic bond - origin, properties and significance.
  16. Proteins - composition, biomedical significance.
  17. Structure of proteins. Bonds that participate in different orders of protein structure.
  18. Hemiacetals and acetals.
  19. Saccharides - properties, biomedical significance.
  20. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of biomedical significance.
  21. Enzymes.
  22. Structure and function of enzymes.
  23. Lipids, steroids and terpenes.
  24. Pyrimidines and purines. Nukleosides, nucleotides, nucleic acids.
  25. Structure of biomembranes. Surface-active compounds (tensides).
    Dental Materials

  1. Dental alloys based on common metals.
  2. Dental alloys based on noble metals.
  3. Classical dental amalgams.
  4. High-copper and mercury-free amalgams.
  5. Techniques of casting metallic dental restorations.
  6. Stomatologic plasters.
  7. Inorganic dental cements.
  8. Phenolate-based dental cements.
  9. Glass-ionomer cements.
  10. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cements.
  11. Fluoride compounds in dentistry.
  12. Dental porcelains.
  13. Dental solders.
  14. Dental waxes.
  15. Investment materials for dental casts.
  16. Alginate and agar impression materials.
  17. Silicone and polyether rubber impression materials.
  18. Polysulfide rubber impression materials.
  19. The impression compound. Zinc oxide-eugenol impression materials.
  20. Natural polymers used in stomatology.
  21. Polymethylmethacrylate and its usage in dentistry.
  22. Composite materials and their usage in dentistry.
  23. Dental restorations made of gold or gold alloys.
  24. Porcelain bonding metal alloys.
  25. Materials used for dental implantates.
 
 
 
 
  .:: created by Lukáš Mikšík, lukas@miksik.com :: edited by Jan Pláteník, jplat@lf1.cuni.cz