Institute of Medical Biochemistry
  Biochemistry & Pathobiochemistry Exam Questions  
Dentistry, 2nd year winter term, 2011/2012

  1. Solutions. Solubility of substances and its significance in biology and biochemistry.
  2. Important functional groups in structure of biomolecules and their reactivity.
  3. Acid-base reactions and their significance in medicine.
  4. Most important disorders of body acid-base balance.
  5. Amino acids: overview, properties and significance in metabolism.
  6. Structure of proteins, chemical bonds and interactions that are involved.
  7. Enzymes – mechanism of action, regulation of activity.
  8. Biologic oxidation, the respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation.
  9. The citric acid cycle, key reactions of the cycle, significance in metabolism.
  10. Lipids, their structure and biological significance. Biomembranes.
  11. Fatty acids, their classification and significance.
  12. Biosynthesis and breakdown of fatty acids.
  13. Prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes – origin and significance.
  14. Cholesterol, its biosynthesis and excretion.
  15. Lipoproteins – overview, metabolism and significance.
  16. Disorders of lipid metabolism. Atherosclerosis.
  17. Bile acids, their synthesis and role in digestion.
  18. Saccharides – structure, classification and significance.
  19. Digestion of saccharides. Metabolism of glycogen.
  20. Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.
  21. Relationships between metabolism of saccharides and metabolism of lipids and proteins.
  22. Pathobiochemical changes in diabetes mellitus.
  23. Proteosynthesis and breakdown of proteins.
  24. Breakdown of amino acids, transamination, deamination, the urea cycle.
  25. Conversion of amino acids to biologically active metabolites.
  26. Differences between metabolism in fed state and in fasting.
  27. Biochemistry and pathobiochemistry of purines and pyrimidines.
  28. Bases of nucleic acids and their significance in structure of nucleic acids.
  29. Biosynthesis of nucleic acids.
  30. Techniques used in molecular biology.
  31. Cytoskeleton – most important components and functions.
  32. Actin and myosin. Muscle contraction.
  33. Main components of connective tissue, bone and teeth.
  34. Calcium, its metabolism and biological significance.
  35. Mineralisation of hard tissues, conditions necessary for its development.
  36. Osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. Biochemical markers of bone remodelling.
  37. Hormones controlling metabolism of calcium.
  38. Proteohormones and peptidic hormones – major members, mechanism of action.
  39. Steroid hormones – biosynthesis, major members, biological significance.
  40. Hormones of adrenal medulla – structure, synthesis and mechanism of action.
  41. Differences in mechanisms between hormone action on membrane and nuclear receptors.
  42. Disorders of hormonal regulations (disorders of hormonal secretion and function, and at the receptor level).
  43. Neurotransmitters – structure, synthesis and mechanism of action.
  44. Blood plasma proteins – function, major members and techniques of laboratory estimation.
  45. Techniques of plasma proteins estimation, electrophoreogram of blood plasma proteins and its alterations.
  46. Complement, its activation and biological significance.
  47. Characteristics of antigens and antibodies.
  48. Immunoglobulins – structure, classification, biological significance. The antibody immune response and its course. Monoclonal antibodies.
  49. Immunochemical techniques and their usage in medicine.
  50. Jaundice (icterus), and its most common causes.
  51. Overview of the main metabolic functions of liver. Pathobiochemistry of impaired liver function.
  52. Biochemical examination of liver function.
  53. Biochemistry of blood coagulation. Substances with anticoagulant effects.
  54. Blood coagulation and its disorders.
  55. Nutrition and its influence on health.
  56. Vitamins, their significance for metabolism and consequences of their deficiencies.
  57. Mineral components in the diet and their biological significance.
  58. Toxic effects of metals, especially heavy metals, on living organisms.
  59. Metabolic alterations caused by ethanol and their consequences.
  60. Mechanisms of poison actions.
  61. Methods of examination in toxicology.
  62. Inflammatory reaction and accompanying biochemical processes.
  63. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins.
  64. Pathobiochemistry of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Role of Fe and Cu.
  65. Biochemical features of tumor growth.
  66. Composition of saliva. Protective function of saliva in mouth cavity.
  67. Dental plaque – characterization, structure, conditions for its formation and its consequences.
  68. Biochemical conditions for the origin of tooth decay.
  69. Saccharides and their role in origin of tooth decay.
  70. Significance of fluoride in prevention of tooth decay.
  71. Plant substances used in dentistry. Alkaloids.
  72. Chemical structures of basic antimicrobial substances.
At the exam a student selects by lot a triplet of questions.
  .:: created by LukᚠMikšík, :: edited by Juraj Gáll,